Not All Momos Should Be Consumed

As if life isn’t full of challenges already, some gaming enthusiasts hurl challenges at one; some really serious ones.  Just when we all thought that we are done with challenges that lead to suicide, there is yet another challenge which is trending in the form of “Momo Challenge“. According to the reports by Sun, the Momo Challenge started off on Facebook where members were challenged to get in touch with an unknown number.

Similar in nature to the Blue Whale Challenge, this challenge also targets the mentally vulnerable. It all begins when an initial contact is established with the user and the “so-called” Momo account sends a couple of challenges and activities which have to be completed to meet the momo. Children are then encouraged to engage themselves in a series of violent activities which finally results in attempting a suicide. Try considering to opt out of this challenge by not following the game orders and the Momo shall threaten you with violent images.

Momo challenge

Who is Momo? 
Momo is a social media account on various platforms that uses an image of a doll which has horrific features such as large eyes and wide mouth. According to the Sun, the account is reportedly connected to three numbers in Japan, Mexico and Columbia.

Couple of days ago, Beunos Aires Times reported that the Argentina Police are claiming this game to be the reason of death of a 12 year old girl who had filmed the activities on her phone before committing suicide. Recently, a First Year college student girl from Jalpaiguri, West Bengal filed a complaint with the local police about an invite which she received on Whatsapp telling her to participate in this game.

It’s a special request to everyone to not partake in any such kinds of challenges and to monitor your near and dear ones about “Momo Challenge”. Please report this case to your nearest police station if you get an invite from any number inviting you to participate in this challenge. 

Best / Not To Be Missed Cafes in Punjab

Let’s admit it. Cafes fill our lives with joy and java. An extension of one’s living room, a cafe is the answer to everything, because a good conversation deserves a seriously good cup of coffee (and some edible delights, but ofcourse!). Here’s a list of our favourite cafes across Punjab. Visit them if you haven’t yet.

Bistro 226 Ludhiana

Bistro 226 is a cosy vibrant cafe nestled in the famous Ghuamr Mandi in Ludhiana. This cafe has been gathering a lot of loyalists since it set shop. Enjoy its charming interiors (mesmerizing outdoors too) and huge portions. The menu is a mix of Continental, Imdian and Oriental. The Creme Brulee here is to die for, and a dessert not so easily available in Punjab.

Best cafes in Punjab

Where: Ghumar Mandi, Ludhiana

Bakes and Beans

The first of its kind and the most popular one since its very inception, Bakes and Beans lives true to its name. It’s pretty much the leader of the coffee revolution. Pair their amazing cold coffee or classic espresso with sandwiches or seasonal cakes that are all hearty and healthy.

Best cafes in Punjab

Where: Pakhowal Road, Ludhiana

Hedgehog Cafe

A good book and a rockstar cup of coffee, Hedgehog cafe is the perfect place to nestle in a comfortable chair with a page turner, an aromatic cup of brew and a wide range of delicious accompaniments to choose from. With walls lined up with books from top to bottom, and an option to even borrow what you choose to read, the place has fast become popular with the locals and visitors alike. For the foodies their thick shakes are a must try, and as are the salads.
Best cafes in Punjab
Where- Sector 7 market. Chandigarh.

Backpackers Cafe

Definitely the game changer in the coffee business in Chandigarh, Backpackers has a host of its loyals since it open its doors a number of years back. With a delightful menu boasting of pizzas, sandwiches and bakes and salads, the cafe is a favourite with many for a weekend brunch. The ‘ Must try’s’ are the sandwiches and breakfast options. With the serving size being surprisingly generous one can easily share a dish with a drink in the side.

Best cafes in Punjab
WHERE – Sector 9 market, Chandigarh.

Kikkly Book Cafe

Amritsar is known for its dhabas and street food. The newly opened Kikkli Book Cafe is a prayer answered, of coffee and book lovers. Located in Basant Avenue in Amritsar, this quaint place is a reader friendly retreat where you can immerse yourself into books, and ofcourse some bakes, cakes and amazing coffee.

Best cafes in Punjab

Where: Basant Avenue, Amritsar

Sunny Side Up 

Certainly the most happening place in Jalandhar. The ambience and food will traverse you to another place altogether. Started in 2012 by the husband wife duo of Ritu and Rajan Sidhu, the restaurant is one of the only places in the city that has an elaborate breakfast menu. Lunch has people thronging the place for its varied cuisine and the evening sees the bistro turn into a lounge bar.

Best cafes in Punjab

Where: Model Town, Jalandhar

Mocha Patiala

All of Patiala converges here! Mocha Patiala is a go-to place of all residents of Patiala, college goers, and families alike. Whether it is the pleasing decor or the quality of food, the place is excellent on all counts. A must visit if you happen to visit the Royal City of Punjab.

Best Cafes in Punjab

Where: Bhupendra Road, Patiala



In the small town of Jalandhar, spearheading a revolution in the field of hospitality and cookery, NFCI- National Finishing and Cookery Institute was launched in 1990; with an integrated programme targeting young minds wanting to enter the world of culinary. As the industry grew, so did the institute’s popularity and soon it converted into a fully fledged Hotel Management Institute, with its USP being 1:15 as the trainer/student ratio and daily practical lessons.

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Grown leaps and bounds in the last 28 years, with over 10,000 placements in India and in many parts of the world, NFCI now runs 8 centres with 5 being in Punjab and 3 in Himachal.Busy creating a highly skilled workforce, offering a variety of certificate and diploma courses in food production, front office training, food and beverage service, housekeeping and bakery.

With an aim to train its students to excel in the hotel industry and equip them to outshine with their skill and training, NFCI launches its collaboration program me with NSDC on 27-01-2018 at Hotel Ramada, Jallandhar.

hospitality school2
Motivated by their motto “a mission to skill people, a mission to skill India” this collaboration was launched with an aim to make India the Skill center of the world by 2022. The aim is to provide the best education and hands-on training in the field of hospitality, with an affordable fee structure, and to ensure suitable placement in the job market, with their alumni already excelling at properties like Radisson, Taj group of Hotels, Marriot, Umrao Hotels, Country Inn and many more.

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A true pioneer in the field of hospitality, The National Finishing and Cookery Institute is set to achieve new heights and create a workforce to be reckoned with.


Situated in the small town of Muktsar, in the memory of the 40 Muktas who died fighting for the 10th Sikh Guru, GURU GOBIND SINGH JI, is Gurudwara Shri Tuti Gandi Sahib. Constituting an important chapter in the glorious history of the Sikhs, ‘Tuti Gandi’s literal translation is ‘broken ties’, which is referred to Guru Gobind Singh Ji nullifying the document, that he was no longer the guru of the 40 Sikhs, in context to the battle of Muktsar. When the 40 Sikhs deserted Guru Sahib in Anandpur Sahib saying “neither you are ours nor we are your Sikhs”, and left for their homes. Their wives’ taunted them about their desertion and forced them to return to rejoin Guru Sahib, and by motivation by MATA BHAG KAUR JI (Mai Bhago ji) they reached Muktsar in search of Guru Sahib. By this time the Muslim army had also reached there, and a fierce battle unused, with Guru Gobind Singh ji also participating shooting arrows from a small hilltop (Tibba).

gurdwara ji

This battle resulted in the death of almost all the Sikhs, except two, Guru Sahib asked them their last wish. They asked Guruji to tear up the affidavit that they had signed in Anandpur Sahib disowning him as their Guru. Guru Sahib immediately tore up the letter and Bhai Maha Singh Ji breathed his last in Guru Sahib’s lap.

gurudwara sahib

Mai Bhago Ji who was seriously wounded, recovered and devoted her years in Guru Sahib’s seva till her end. In the daily ‘Ardaas’ these Sikhs are remembered all over the world, Guru Sahib tied the knot between his followers and himself hence the name of the Gurudwara Sahib – Tuti Gandi Sahib, and attracts thousands of visitors especially on the occasion of ‘Maghi Mela’ which is celebrated every January.

Write Up Contributed by Opinder Sekhon (The writer is a Chandigarh based history buff)

Woman of Wonder – Captain (Dr.) Paramjit Kaur Dhanoa

Old Is Gold! Living up to this and living it up literally too, is this woman of wonder, Captain (Dr.) Paramjit Dhanoa. At 91, this veteran woman is gracefully old, has retained her childlike enthusiasm to explore and learn new things, has nerves of steel and has a compassionate heart of pure gold. Myriad experiences of life intertwined with a zest for living, her journey is the perfect example of ’life lived to the fullest’! And one lived with dignity, gusto, a sense of purpose, selflessness and compassion. She inspires as much as she amazes!

dr dhanoaa
With her daughter


Born in Lyallpur, Lahore, she, back in those days, overcame huge odds and gender barriers and worked tirelessly to pursue her childhood dream of becoming a doctor. Infact, she is the lone doctor in her family of four siblings. Neither of her parents were doctors too. “My dream was to wear a stethoscope and I worked very hard for it. I’m blessed that my assiduity bore fruit”, she says with a glint in her eyes. Her contemporaries remember how she was one of the three Sikh girls to have merited a coveted seat at the prestigious King Edward College, Lahore. At the time of partition she was in her third year of medical school and was staying in a hostel.

doctor dhanoa
On a holiday with her happy family

In the wake of India-Pakistan division, amidst utter turmoil, she was forced to relocate to India. Amritsar Medical College is where she completed her degree from. An MBBS degree and an internship later, she joined the Himachal Medical Service in 1951. While still in service, and posted in Pune, she got married to Captain (then) S.S Dhanoa. The daughter of a privileged and progressive family, Ms. Dhanoa in her own way defied the conservative social mores of her environment, in which girls from well-to-do families could go to school but grown up women were expected to run a house and raise a family, no matter how educated they were. Further waging war against powerfully set beliefs of those times, she joined the Indian Army in 1956. The fact that this move happened after she’d had her first child (daughter) and her very first posting was Jammu and Kashmir, makes it all the more remarkable. She was infact the first lady doctor to be posted in Jammu and Kashmir, and was visiting wards of TB patients in places like Udhampur, Samba, Nagarota and other parts of the valley. As she lucidly puts it, “a pioneer’s job is not easy. You’ve got to work for your passion and nothing else in the early phase”. It’s this very passion that goaded her on and gave her the resilience to stay on course. With her diligence and determination, she almost single handedly mutated a destitute community which was down in the dumps.

aunty dhanoa
Then & Now

A couple of years later, when she was to have her son, Dr. Dhanoa began keeping unwell. An acute chest pain compelled her to undergo some tests, only to discover that there was a small spot of TB. Not the kind to get hassled, she fought her illness bravely. The fact that this could have happened because she was in close contact with TB patients didn’t bother the selfless doctor in her at all. The Army helped her undergo treatment in Amritsar. Despite her illness, she couldn’t resign as those were days of the Emergency. Patience and grit played her constant companion throughout this phase. These, with unparalleled support from her husband made her sail through her ailment. She finally left the Army in 1963 and joined her husband. As if life knew that she was strong enough to handle and endure a lot, it kept throwing curve balls her way. Immediately after she joined her husband, he got a field posting. She then shifted to Shimla and stayed put, with the idea of good schooling for her children.

mrs dhanoa3
With her daughter & son


Thereafter, she dedicated her life totally to her daughter and son, her prime focus in life being their education. Her husband retired in the year 1982 and the family moved to Chandigarh thereafter. While she lost her husband and quite a few dear friends along the way, but the optimism and buoyancy remained intact. This nonagenarian spends her time playing Mahjong and travelling. She’s widely traveled, has been to the U.S, United Kingdom, majority of Europe, Scandinavian countries, and is always enthusiastic about trying new things, exploring new adventures and meeting new people.

dr. dhanoa 1

She does not have any lifestyle-related health conditions such as hypertension or diabetes. She credits her state of health to her active lifestyle, staying happy, raising her children and later, playing a significant role in the care and upbringing of her grandchildren. Her advice to the current generation is to strive hard and stay focused on whatever one wants to accomplish. “I do not have any regrets in life. My husband and the Army have given me the best years of my life and I wish that in my next birth too, I’m married to an Army officer. From the very first day of my life, right up until this morning, I know there is nothing I would have rather done with my life,”, are her parting words to our team. Amen to that!

The Epic Story Of Lohri

Dulla Bhatti da kissa – Epic story of Dullah Bhatti

Dulla Bhatti was a famous legendary Rajput hero of Punjab, who led a rebellion against the famous Mughal king Akbar. There is a kind of epic in Punjabi language called Dulle di var, which narrates the battle events of Dulla Bhatti. Still there is a famous region in Punjab, Pakistan, called Dulle Di Bar means the forest of Dulla Bhatti. This legendary Punjabi hero is buried at Miani Sahib Qabristan (Graveyard) in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. There is a town Dullewala (Bhakkar District) in the name of legendary Dulla Bhatti where he had a stay with his allies.
Dulla Bhatti was born in a Punjabi family to mother Ladhi and father Farid Khan in the area of Sandal Baar, near Faisalabad now in Pakistan (Sandal Bar is also related to the legend of Mirza Sahiba). He belonged to the warrior like rajput clan of Bhattis.He following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, waged a guerrilla warfare against the Mughal Empire.He refused to accept the legitimacy of Mughal King Akbar and refused to pay any tax.Such was the level of resistance put up by the rebels that Akbar had to shift his Imperial Capital to Lahore for nearly 20 years. When Akbar came to Lahore, he ordered the execution of the rebels.Legend has it that to instill fear into the hearts of the common man, Akbar got their skins stuffed with wheat hay (toori) and hung the dead-bodies on the main door.


Dulla wasn’t even born yet. For some reason, huirre was never told of the cause of his father’s and grandfather’s death until he was a young man. One theory has it that Dulla was born at the same time as Akbar’s son Salim (who would later become Emperor Jahangir); but Salim was a weakling and on doctors’ suggestions Akbar brought in Ladhi (Dulla’s mother and a strong rajput woman) to his palace in Delhi and made her to breast feed Salim. So both Dulla and Salim were practically brought up by Ladhi. As adolescents, these two had a good friendship. Dulla and his mother went back to their homeland.

The story of Dulla has been poetically treated by many, and has been written in style known as Saddaan (similar to Mirza by Peelu and Bhagwan Singh). The above incident is thus narrated:

Tera saandal dada maareya, ditta bhore vich paa, Mughlaan puthhiyaan khallaan laah ke bhariyaan naal hawaa.

In the Chardah (East) Punjab-now India-during the Lohri bonfires that mark the end of the deep winter and the start of spring (Capricorn Constellation-Makar appears over the horizon) all the Sikh and Hindu families mark Dulla Bhatti’s social and humanitarian contribution made to rescue and then reintegrate the abducted children and girls from the Moghul forces. The Lohri Song is sung upon the birth of a baby boy- for the agricultural community this marks continuation of the family land occupation.

The version of Lohri Song that best describes this contribution of Bhatti and the immense respect with which this rebel is held in the eyes of all Punjabis is:

Sunder mundriye hoe!

Tera kaun wicahara hoe!
Dullah bhatti walla hoe!
Dullahe di dhee vyayae hoe!
Ser shakkar payee hoe!
Kudi da laal pachaka hoe!
Kudi da saalu paatta hoe!
Salu kaun samete!
Mamhe choori kutti! zamidara lutti!
Zamindaar sudhaye!
bade bhole aaye!
Ek bhola reh gaya!
Sipahee pakad ke lai gaya!
Sipahee ne mari eet!
Sanoo de de lohri te teri jeeve jodi! (Cry or howl!)
Paheenve ro te phannve pit! ”
(Rhyming: beautiful one like a ringlet one!)
Who will save you poor one (to a rescued girl)
Dullah Bhatti is here for you (He rescued the girls who were abandoned and rejected after kidnap!)
The Duallah married off his daughter (the rescued girls were adopted by him as his daughters)
He gave a measure (sher about a kilo)of sugar!
The girl is wearing bridal red dress!
But her shawl is torn (poor and soiled-girl has been raped?)!
Who will stitch her shawl(repair her reputation)?!
The maternal uncle made sweet ghee bread (choori)! (maternal uncles were responsible to vouch for chastity of the girl)


The landlords ravished it (meaning the girl kidnapped by rich moghul landlords!)!
He made the landlords eat a lot!
Lots of innocent guys came (poor grooms)
One innocent boy got left behind (the poorest of poor!)
The soldiers arrested him! (Indicated that he was in collusion with Bhatti the rebel)
The soldiers hit him with a brick! (tortured him)
Cry or howl!
Give us lohri (gifts) ..long live you couple!”

Rise of Dulla
As Dulla grew up he became a real fighter and warrior learning the art with his keen eye from here and there, unknowingly in the foot-steps of his father and grandfather. When he was young enough, his mother told him the about the past and from then on Dulla pledged that his only purpose in life was to defeat Akbar and kill him. In the meantime, Salim had a fall out with Akbar over Salim’s love affair with Anarkali. Salim rebelled and came up North-west and met up with Dulla. Salim instigated Dulla further to achieve his own motive as well. With Salim’s support, Dulla built up a small army of dacoits which made loots from the imperial treasure and merchants in the area of Sandal Bar. The famous loots among them being stealing horses from a merchant who was supposed to be working for the Akbar, then robbing Akbar’s gifts sent from the Middle East. His loots were distributed among the poor and this made him a popular and a heroic rebel. His compassion for the poor and his help in getting poor girls married is still remembered, especially during the times of celebrating the festival of Lohri (mostly falls on 13 January). Although different versions of the festive song are sung in different regions, it sounds something like:

Sundar munderiye
Tera kaun vichaara
Dulla bhatti waala
Dulle ne dhii vehaayi
Ser shakkar paayi
Kudi da saalu paata
Kudi da jeeve chacha
Kudi de maame aaye
Gin gin paule laaye
Ikk paula khus geya
Te zimiindaar russ geya
Aayiin aayiin chachi
Tera putt chadhu ga haathi
Haathi de kann vich jaun
Ni tere putt hon ge nau
Nau(h)aan di kamaayi
Ni tere dar dar chadh di aayi
Seeing so much support for his nephew, Dulla’s uncle Jalaludin, got envious and complained to Akbar against the mischievous Dulla.

In the meantime, Dulla kidnapped two of Akbar’s wives who were going for the Haj pilgrimage. This infuriated Akbar and he ordered immediate capture or killing of Dulla and the safe release of his queens. A huge army was sent for the task, and Dulla would not binge. People of that area wanted to save Dulla and tried to distract the army; so much so that one girl tried to lure the army chief.

Anyway, Dulla fought bravely and for once the Mughal Army had to call for reinforcements because the rebels and the public support were too hot to handle. Dulla’s son was killed in the war. Dulla was deceitfully captured and brought to emperor’s court in Delhi. He was hanged to death.


Studying the play of light, shadow and subject, capturing images with a unbridled zeal at age when most of his contemporaries were busy scouring malls and brands, is Abhinav Joshi all of 18 years of age, a photographer par excellence. Born in 1999 into a family of educationists, this Jalandhar lad’s upbringing and outlook was greatly influenced by his grandfather J.C. Joshi, and father Nitin Joshi who helped channelize his energy and give a direction to his interests.


His relationship with the camera started out at the tender age of 11 years, when he discovered his ability and skill for photography, was a lot more than a passing interest. Over the next few years he attended many workshops including some organized by Nikon, and experimented with various styles of photography. A major turning point was training under renowned wildlife photographer Sudhir Shivram, which brought out a confidence and definite signature to this youngster’s photography.

abhinav joshi


Getting his first commercial venture in 2012, Abhinav has worked many projects, including covering the Royal Enfield – one ride, VRV Fitness Center, NFCI Hotel Management Institute, events for his school APJ Jalandhar and numerous birthday parties.

abhinav 7


“Always a hyperactive child, he was an extremely fast and enthusiastic learner. His unique grasp of a subject and disinterest in social pressures has shaped his passion” shares Anjna Joshi his proud mother. A keen sportsperson, with a black belt in Karate, this young gun is definitely slated for bigger thing behind the camera, with an aim for the field of cinematography.

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Check out his facebook page @photographic energy and website for more magical pictures.


A love story that began in a mundane telecom office, culminated in marriage and then amidst the aroma of vanilla and fresh bakes, launched a successful cake business “Cookies Jar by Geet and Vir” in the year 2007. The dynamic husband wife duo of Geet and Vir are now a name to reckon with in the cake industry in Chandigarh and surrounding regions. Quitting their well paying jobs, the couple unleashed their artistic side, creating magic using fondant icing, being one of the first few bakers in the city to use the product, with detailing and finesse that was unmatched in its outcome. Crafting delicious cakes, the duo are a busy lot creating memories for kid’s birthday parties, wedding receptions, engagement ceremonies, customizing each piece to suit the clients need and demand.

game cookie jar

The beauty in their creations is obvious, with the team being swamped with orders, not just because of their imaginative pieces, but also the delicious flavors that are created from scratch in their kitchen. Working with a team of 7, they are constantly evolving and of recent have even created a ‘Dream Catcher’ cake which was one of its kinds. “ I work with flowers, focusing on roses, while Vir creates the ‘boys’ pieces, be it a Harley Davidson, a Rolex watch, a sports car and even a hunting rifle atop the cake.

geet cake rolexWe take a lot of pride in our work, often the fondant roses have been mistaken for real ones, which speaks of the detailing, that goes into each piece,” shares Geet. Another bestseller is the collection of chocolates ‘Rocky Roads’ which are often a part of the wedding invite, baby announcement, party favors and of course Diwali gifts, setting a record of sorts, Geet has wrapped 8000 pieces for an order once. Isn’t that Wow!!!

pony cake

With their cakes fast becoming the centerpieces of many an event, this baker couple is surely on the sweet road to success. 9814020889 (Geet) 9041099234 (Vir) Cookies jar by Geet nd Vir

Ghana India Friendship

The strong foundation of any country’s growth, besides other things, lies in bilateral trade with other countries. In line with this and with the agenda of deepening ties with the African countries on a fast-track, specifically those between India and Ghana, a few events were held in the recent past, in the capital city of Delhi. These events provided a platform for healthy and engaging interaction between Ghanian delegates and the business fraternity especially that of Punjab. 

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For decades, India has had a strong presence in Africa, with a sizeable diaspora and business community engaged in trade and various lucrative, profitable businesses. Mr. Amardeep S Hari, one such prominent Sikh businessman of Ghana recently organized a reception for the newly appointed High Commissioner of the Republic of Ghana to India, H.E. Mike Aaron Oquaye at The Imperial Hotel in Delhi. He expressed to have mutually beneficial business relations between Ghana and India in the field of agriculture and other infrastructure projects. H.E Mike Aaron Oquaye also emphasized on a sustainable trading relationship between India and Ghana. Eminent names from the private sector such as the Bectors, the Oswals were present.
ghana imperial
Another such event was held at Mumbai where a welcome reception was held in honour of the new ambassador of Ghana to India. H.E Mike Aaron Oquaye Jr along with Chief Guest of Honour Speaker of Parliament of Ghana Rt. hon. Prof. Aaron Mike Oquaye and also delegates from One District One Factory (Office of the President), The Exim Bank of Ghana and Ghana Commercial Bank. Ghana invites technology transfer and investments from India in various fields staring with clean renewal energy, Solar power, Agriculture, Water and Irrigation solutions, Cocoa processing, Palm Oil, Jute, Pharmaceuticals, Textile Manufacturing, Packing, Fruit/food processing, Low Cost Housing and many more sectors for Ghana’s growth.
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The trade between India and Ghana has constantly scaled upwards since the last several years, as Ghana regularly exports cashew nuts, metalifers ores and metal scrap, wood and wood products, pearls, precious and semi-precious stones, oil seeds and spices and imports pharmaceutical products, cotton yarn, fabrics, machinery and instruments from India. The Special guest here was the Minister of State for Water Resources and Water Conservation / Irrigation, Hon. Shri Vijay Shivtare. He expressed his sincere desire to share his in-depth knowledge and expertise in the field of hydro power, water and irrigation facilities, promoting agricultural output.

us at ghanian embassy

Ghana invites technology transfer and investments from India in various fields starting with clean renewal energy, Solar Power, Agriculture, Water and Irrigation Solutions, Cocoa processing, Palm Oil, Jute, Pharmaceuticals, Textile Manufacturing, Packing, Fruit/food Processing, Low Cost Housing and many more sectors for Ghana’s growth.

Here’s to many collaborations and fruitful cooperation in varied fields!

Punjabi Language – Rich In Every Which Way

Punjabi is an Indo Aryan language, and is ranked as the 10th most widely spoken language, spoken by 100 million native speakers worldwide. It is spoken in Indian Punjab, Pakistani Punjab (that forms about 60% of Pakistani population) and Punjabi diaspora which is spread across the globe, that is the UK, Canada, the USA, the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Australia  Punjabi descended from the Shauraseni language of medieval northern India and became a distinct language during the 11th century.

In India Punjabi is written with the Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) alphabet, while in Pakistan it is written with a version of the Urdu alphabet known as Shahmukhi (شاہ مکھی). The written standard for Punjabi in both India and Pakistan is known as Majhi (ਮਾਝੀ/ ماجھ), which is named after the Majha region of Punjab.

Punjabi language is a very old language. In Indian Punjab, the language is written in Gurmukhi script. Even about the Gurmukhi script, there is a misconception that it was created by Sikh Gurus. The word Gurmukhi has connotative meaning that the script was appropriated and popularized by the Sikh Gurus in general and Guru Angad Dev Ji in particular.

Punjabi is mainly written in the below Scripts

Gurmukhi Script (In India)

Shahmukhi Script (In Pakistan)

Devnagri Script (Dogri Upboli or Dialects)

GURMUKHI SCRIPT: The Gurmukhi alphabet developed from the Landa alphabet and was standardised during the 16th century by Guru Angad Dev Ji, the second Sikh guru. The name Gurmukhi means “from the mouth of the Guru” and comes from the Old Punjabi word guramukhī. The type of writing system is syllabic alphabet and the direction of writing is from left to right in horizontal lines.

Modern Gurmukhi has thirty-eight consonants (vianjan), nine vowel symbols (lāga mātrā), two symbols for nasal sounds (bindī andṭippī), and one symbol which duplicates the sound of any consonant (addak). In addition, four conjuncts are used: three subjoined forms of the consonants Rara, Haha and Vava, and one half-form of Yayya. Use of the conjunct forms of Vava and Yayya is increasingly scarce in modern contexts.

SHAHMUKHI SCRIPT: The Shahmukhi alphabet is a version of the Urdu alphabet used to write Punjabi in Pakistan. It is normally written in Nastaʿlīq style and has been used since the second half of the 20th century. The name Shahmukhi means “from the King’s mouth”. It is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Muslims in Punjab to write the Punjabi language.The Shahmukhi alphabet was first used by the Sufi poets of the Punjab; it became the conventional writing style for the Muslims in Pakistan. The direction of writing in this case is from right to left in horizontal lines.

It’s used in Indian Punjab is mainly confined to the elderly generation, although it is also recommended to be studied for students studying at M.A level in Punjabi. It is however, used as the main alphabet to write the Pothohari dialect in Indian Jammu and Kashmir.

DEVNAGARI SCRIPT: Punjabi is mainly written in Shahmukhi and Gurmukhi but Devnagari  also used to write dogri dialect of punjabi language. It is less popular and a lesser known script for Punjabi.


And then there are different dialects of Punjabi.


Spoken in the heart of Punjab i.e., Lahore , Sialkot, Gujaranwala, Gurdaspur, Amritsar. Most of the population of Punjab lives in this area and linguists also say that Majhi dialect is the “Tixali boli” i.e., it has been influenced by all other dialects


Spoken in the east Punjab area of Ludhiana, Ambala, Bathinda, Ganganagar, Maleerkotla Fazilka, Ferozepur. This area (Malwa) is the southern and central part of present day Indian Punjab. Also includes the Punjabi speaking areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, Hissar, Sirsa, kurukhetra etc. (northern parts of Haryana mainly).


Land between the rivers of Beas and Satluj is called Doaba. Do Aaba literally means “the land between two waters” in Persian. It includes Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur.


The area where Pothohari is spoken extends in the north from Kashmir to as far south as Jehlum and Gujar Khan and includes the capital of Pakistan, Islamabad. This dialect is similar to some extent to the Hindko dialect of Punjabi which is spoken in Peshawar, Nowshehra, Mansehra all these areas lie in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan where majority language is Pashto, but Hindko speakers area also found in sizable numbers.


The region where Jhangvi is spoken stretches from Khanewal to Jhang and includes the cities of Faisalabad, Chiniot. Jhangvi dialect is also called the “Jangli” dialect of Punjabi. 


The dialect spoken in Multan, Bahawalpur, Khairpur, Daira Ghazi Khan, Muzafar Garh i.e., southern deserts of Punjab is called Multani (also Lehndi by some) and perhaps differs from Punjabi more than any other dialect. Those who closely know the dialect say that it is a very “mithi boli.” This is the land of Muslim Sufis, perhaps “Shah Shams Sabazwari” who came to Multan in 1165 AD was the first in a long series of Sufis to base themselves in Multan. Multani becomes more and more different as you move down south, as the influence of Sindhi increases, it is also known as Siraiki there. Siraiki itself is Sindhi word and means northern.